Does the hottest spot market really threaten the p

2022-08-23
  • Detail

Does the spot market really threaten the power balance and system security

after the issuance of the No. 9 document of the power reform, the construction of the power market has become a hot topic in the industry, especially the recent Zhejiang spot trading rules for the global bidding of 40million yuan in Zhejiang Province, which has made the power spot market gain enough attention

insiders who understand the power market generally agree that the spot market is the core of the power market. Another voice is that China has not experienced large-scale power system accidents for a long time. The main reason is the traditional planning and scheduling method with highly centralized control power. The essence of the spot market is to change the traditional planning and scheduling method. The economic optimization under security constraints is less safe than the traditional planning and scheduling, and may even affect the power balance and reliable power supply

therefore, it is concluded that the spot market will not be started for the time being, or the pilot should be carried out in areas with small power consumption and far away from political and economic centers. Does the spot market threaten the power balance and security? The author believes that the answer is just the opposite. The spot market is the best way to maintain power balance and system security at present, and there is no one

in order to ensure power balance and system safety, four basic requirements need to be met: first, the smooth execution of dispatching orders, second, the abundant resources of system regulation, third, the clear and clear safety rules, and fourth, the comprehensive pre control of operation risks. The following is a comparison between planning and scheduling and the spot market from these four aspects to prove that the operation mode of the spot market will be effectively strengthened

from the perspective of dispatching command and execution

in the current mode, because the self-interest of power generation enterprises can only be obtained through electricity, when the system needs to reduce power generation, power generation enterprises are unwilling to reduce power from the heart, resulting in the slow response of dispatching orders, which can often be implemented at the latest time limit, and even in extreme cases, there is a situation of "flattering others while violating others". Under the operation mode of the spot market, since the price signal is formed by the optimization of the output of all units, only by responding to the dispatching order can the power generation enterprise implement the business strategy reflected through the quotation. The units with the lowest energy consumption give priority to power generation, and the units with relatively high energy consumption reduce the power generation, obtain economic compensation, and all generating units obtain the maximum economic benefits, otherwise, they will suffer economic losses. Therefore, under the operation mode of spot market, the unit will respond more quickly and the dispatching order will be executed more effectively

from the perspective of system regulation resources

under the current mode, the regulation ability provided by power generation enterprises often affects the power on them, which may damage their own economic benefits (such as adding oil for combustion support and increasing maintenance costs). Therefore, power generation enterprises often avoid peak shaving, frequency modulation and start-up and shutdown on the grounds of heating restrictions, antifreeze requirements, auxiliary machine defects, affecting unit life, etc. Only the power generation enterprises are most aware of the limit of their own regulation capacity, and the power dispatching has no way to comprehensively and accurately grasp the real situation of each power plant. The relevant government departments lack the ability to supervise, and the cost of identifying units one by one in advance is too high, and they cannot fully consider the constraints of the operating state. Finally, due to the above reasons, the system regulation capacity is insufficient. Under the operation mode of spot market, the scarcity of system regulation capacity will produce attractive price signals. The self-interest of power generation enterprises is consistent with the goal of system operation demand, and more work can be done. This will not only help power generation enterprises fully release all their existing regulation capabilities, but also guide power generation enterprises to provide more and faster regulation resources through equipment governance and transformation. Even, it will stimulate social vitality and promote new technologies such as batteries, flywheels and air energy storage to provide frequency modulation and peak shaving, so as to further improve the adequacy of system regulation resources

from the perspective of safety rules

in the current mode, because the interest protection of power generation enterprises is a long-term process, some safety operation control rules are not clear enough, there are many human factors, and the real-time operation is not fine enough. Only the safety function undertaking unit cares about the safety rules, and the safety rules are difficult to be comprehensive and accurate. In the operation mode of spot market, because the safety rules will affect the interests of all market members, market members will unanimously require that the safety rules must be clear and explicit without mobilization. Compared with the safety rules of PJM power market in the United States, China's power system generally has deficiencies in safety fortification standards, regulation requirements and real-time monitoring, equipment control quotas and other aspects under different meteorological conditions. Therefore, through the construction of the spot market, with the joint efforts of market members, it will be able to effectively promote the formation of more comprehensive, clear and clear safety rules, which will be more conducive to fundamentally ensuring the safe operation of electricity

from the perspective of operation risk pre control,

predicting the power mode in advance and carrying out risk analysis and pre control is an important means to improve the safe and stable operation level of power, but the premise is that the deviation between the prediction mode and the actual mode is small. In the current mode, although the day ahead plan arrangement has also carried out a relatively sufficient risk analysis, due to the lack of clear optimization objectives, users themselves do not actively cooperate with the system operation. During real-time operation, the generation and output arrangement of units is often inconsistent with the day ahead plan, or most units have inconsistent periods, which greatly changes the day ahead arrangement and is not conducive to the prevention and control of operation risks. Under the supporting document spot market mode, both the day ahead market and the real-time market (balance mechanism) are cleared based on the principle of minimizing the cost (or adjustment cost) under the constraints of power safety, and the control objectives are the same. In order to ensure the interests of market members, the formed day ahead and real-time power generation output curves must have little deviation. Therefore, the pre control measures formulated recently for risks have greater reference value for real-time operation, both in terms of preparation time and analysis coverage, which greatly improves the level of electric safety operation

from the perspective of power balance guarantee

in the current mode, due to the catalog price, even if the peak and valley price is used, the actual peak and valley of power users do not coincide with the static peak and Valley. As a result, the power consumption behavior of power users has nothing to do with the level of system load, and power users have no power to "shift peak and fill valley", which increases the difficulty of power balance at peak hours. Under the operation mode of spot market, the price signal of the next day's peak period given by the day ahead market will guide power generation enterprises to ensure the healthy operation of equipment during peak hours by preparing high-quality fuel and strengthening equipment monitoring at key times in order to obtain greater economic benefits. At the same time, it will also guide power users to actively reduce the power consumption behavior during the peak period of the next day, so as to better ensure the power balance of the whole system

in general, compared with the current mode, the spot market operation mode better combines the self-interests of power generation enterprises and power users with the operation requirements of the system to form a more effective incentive means. On this basis, based on clear and clear operation rules and workflow process, it will be more conducive to ensuring power balance and system safety

in order to better explain the above problems, we can use driving as an analogy to explain the measures to ensure safety

if there are two drivers with exactly the same driving level (equivalent to the same skilled power dispatcher, power generation enterprise, production and operation personnel of power enterprise), whether their driving is safe requires four basic requirements

whether to obey the police command

that is, whether the dispatching order is executed smoothly. We know that at some intersections, the police will direct the traffic. If the driver is in a hurry (the thermal power unit hopes to increase the power supply), when the police requires to stop (at a low time, in order to ensure wind power generation, the thermal power unit needs to reduce the output), he will break through the intersection (the thermal power unit should not fully meet the customer's requirements, obey the instructions, and do not reduce or slowly reduce the power generation output under various excuses), which will lead to a collision (the power flow of the system interconnection line exceeds the stability limit, and the system frequency exceeds the limit)

whether the performance of a good car is brought into full play

that is, whether the system has sufficient adjustment resources. We all have this experience. Due to the complex traffic conditions on the road, drivers need to speed up overtaking and slow down to make way in time to ensure safety. If we have a good car, the engine fuel program can give full play to the characteristics of strong horsepower and fast throttle response (the system has abundant FM resources and fast response), which will help us pass safely when we need to accelerate to overtake. On the contrary, if we drive a car with poor fuel program and accelerate slowly, we may face greater danger when overtaking. Similarly, when there is a situation ahead and we need to slow down, if our car is in good condition and the brakes are sensitive (the system has sufficient peak shaving capacity and fast adjustment speed), it will effectively ensure safety. On the contrary, the braking response is slow, and people may even die. The operation mode of the spot market can distinguish the performance of the car and give a certain reward according to the performance effect. Under the current mode, the performance of the car is not a factor to be considered for reward

whether to abide by clear and definite speed limit rules

that is, whether the safety rules for power operation control are clear and definite. We all have this experience. When driving on highways with good road conditions, if the speed limit is 120 kilometers, we all feel safe and controllable when driving 100 kilometers. When driving on a rugged mountain road, if you encounter multiple bends, even if you drive at a speed of only 30 kilometers, you will still be shocked. Therefore, a single fixed speed limit is not the only indicator of driving safety. The operation mode of the spot market is equivalent to the feeling of all drivers, according to different road conditions More detailed and reasonable speed limits are set in different weather (3. The spring testing machine should be relatively important for a production-oriented enterprise. Improper use may cause experimental errors. Products can be produced in large quantities and then put on the market only after strict experiments. Therefore, the use requirements of the spring testing machine should be controlled in detail. According to the operation life and working conditions of various power equipment, and based on different meteorological conditions, set a reasonable operation limit), and strictly abide by the speed limit, Is the fundamental to ensure driving safety

whether we have a good idea of the driving route and possible emergencies

that is, whether the operation risk can be comprehensively pre controlled. We all have this experience, and we are quite confident about our daily driving route. If you go to a strange place (the daily plan deviates from the actual implementation), you don't know the road conditions (the load forecast deviation in China's plastic machinery market is large because users don't participate in the optimization), and you don't know where to find a parking space (the new situation is difficult to predict, resulting in the inaccuracy of the pre-determined emergency measures), the psychological pressure when driving will be greater

a very important reason why good drivers (under the operation mode of the spot market) have fewer accidents or even no accidents is that they always analyze and plan the driving route in advance (through the formulation of the day ahead plan, predict the electric mode in advance, and carry out risk analysis and pre control). They will pay attention to which road section is easier to walk, which road section has poor traffic conditions, and where pedestrians are prone to cross horses

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI